Tiles are widely used in our houses and public buildings for walls and floor finishing. There are many types of tiles with different properties, look and field of application which gives freedom to select finishing of any design you want. Bellow is a list of the most common tiles and where they are used.
Сeramic tile (Dutch tile) – the most spread type of tile. It is produced out of blend of clay, sand and minerals with further burnt and covered with glaze. Glaze allows getting tile pieces of any color, texture, with any pattern, glossy or matt. Ceramic tiles can be used everywhere, from basement to walls in a bathroom.
Porcelain tile – the raw material for this tile is also clay, but unlike its ceramic analogue it is burnt at higher temperature. As a result porcelain tiles have a very low indicator or absorption, it is less porous, it features a harder and more dense composition, more frost-hardy. The surface of this tile is very hard, it is almost impossible to scratch or break. It can withstand rigors of weather, that’s why it is common to use it for outside finishing.
Porcelain stoneware – it is a general name for ceramic/porcelain tiles with ultra low water absorption, and as a result with high frost-hardy. Raw materials, used for manufacture, are similar to porcelain tiles, but these pieces resemble stone. Porcelain stoneware is produced by a method of dry pressing and then they are fired with high temperature (higher than for ceramic). Pieces, received via this method have the highest technical specifications; they are very durable to abrasion and corrosive environment. Classic non-glaze porcelain stoneware has grain structure, like natural stone has, but unlike it stoneware do not suffer from such disadvantages as cracking, foreign inclusions, hollows. The surface of non-glazed porcelain stoneware can be unpolished, semi-polished, polished and sculptured. It is used in places with high traffic of people (offices, stores, airports), for outer walls finishing. Glazed tiles can have different design and colors.
Clinker (Flemish) tiles – glazed or non-lazed tile of singular firing with scirrhous foundation. These tiles are produced using either extrusion ( squeezing through a mould) or pressing method. Clinkers are fired at very high temperature, as a result they have excellent parameters of wear and frost resistance. Besides, it is not prone to influence of chemical elements, do not absorb water and can be easily cleaned. Extrusion allows manufacturing tiles with complicated geometrical shape. This tile is used in finishing of sports facilities, pools, for flooring outside and inside buildings, at staircases, for outer walls finishing.
Cotto – it is a tile of a brick color, made using extrusion method. As usually such tile does not have glaze and has natural terracotta shades (yellow, red, brown). Most often cotto tiles are manufactured for flooring inside buildings. After installation its surface requires to be processed with protective compounds (hydrophobic coating, wax), otherwise it can break out in stains.
Stone (granite, marble, slate, limestone). It has a more attractive, natural look comparing to ceramic tiles, but on the other hand stone tile is more porous, more moisture absorbing. It is more costly to lay stone tiles; in addition it is more demanding in maintaining.
Glass tile can be transparent, matt, hardened. Glass surface doesn’t have pores, hence why this type of tile is not water absorbing, which makes is a good choice for bathrooms and kitchens.